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Unusual install methods

The slitaz-installer installs SliTaz in a partition or a hard drive as most Linux distributions do. However, there are many other ways to install SliTaz…

The following configurations are using the SliTaz 4.0 boot loader grub4dos-linux.

Most kernel command line arguments are processed by /init during the boot process.

Frugal install

You don't need a special partition, the system runs in RAM like a Live CD…

See frugal install and ISO image install

…it can be tuned to your needs a little bit.

See tune boot

You can also use a LORAM flavor created with tazlitobox and The filesystem is always in RAM

…or The filesystem may be on a small CDROM. Install the CD-ROM files /boot/bzImage and /boot/rootfs.gz and copy the /rootfs.gz . Say into /this/directory . Now get the label of the partition. Say mypartition:

# blkid

And append the param loram= to the cmdline:

kernel (hd1)/boot/bzImage rw root=/dev/null vga=normal loram=LABEL=mypartition,this/directory

You can also use a device name (loram=/dev/hda2,this/directory). The device name may vary with the kernel version (hda or sda) and USB keys.

USB key install

Tazusb

This is a mix between a frugal and traditional install. The system runs fully in RAM but the home directory is always on the key. You can modify the system (configure, install packages) and then save the new system on the key 8-). See tazusb manual

You can create the USB key from the ISO image

# tazusb gen-iso2usb slitaz-cooking.iso

Hybrid ISO

This install method will erase all of your key and install a unmodifiable :-/ SliTaz. You can create a custom system with tazlito or tazlitobox. Each Slitaz ISO image is hybrid.

Use fdisk to get back the remining free space on the USB keys. Simply add a partition(s).

# dd if=slitaz-cooking.iso of=/dev/usbkey
# fdisk /dev/usbkey

Floppy install

The last resort install

Imagine you have a very old PC with a floppy drive and a hard disk. No CD-ROM, no network card, and no USB. The hard disk works only with this machine. You can't plug it into your friend's PC or into an USB disk box.

Prepare a floppy set

Get a floppy set from http://mirror.slitaz.org/floppies/. The base subset should be sufficient (6 floppies).

Your may use one floppy only with tiny slitaz for a manual install (without the slitaz-installer)

Build a data floppy set from the ISO image:

# echo "slitaz.iso" | cpio -o -H newc | split -b 1440k /dev/stdin iso
# dd if=isoaa of=/dev/fd0
# dd if=isoab of=/dev/fd0
# ...

Some data floppy sets can be generated on SliTaz mirrors

Transfer the ISO image onto hard disk

Boot from the slitaz floppy set, mount a hard disk partition in /mnt and restore the data floppy set in /mnt:

# cd /mnt
# dd if=/dev/fd0 of=fdiso01
# dd if=/dev/fd0 of=fdiso02
...
# cat fdiso* | cpio -i
# rm fdiso*

Now you can use any install method from an ISO image. Example:

# mount -o loop,ro slitaz.iso /media/cdrom
# slitaz-installer

With tiny slitaz, you don't have the slitaz-installer. You can start a frugal install:

# mkdir boot && cp /media/cdrom/boot/bzImage /media/cdrom/boot/rootfs.gz boot && rm slitaz.iso

and optionally a standard install:

# unlzma -c boot/rootfs.gz | cpio -id 

The problem: you have no boot loader!

Boot the SliTaz generic boot floppy with the SliTaz frugal menu entry. Now you can install the Grub bootloader on the hard disk.

Loop install

If you want to install SliTaz on a disk (not a frugal install), and you don't want to create a partition for SliTaz, but you have enough room in a feature-poor filesystem (FAT32 or NTFS)…

… create a loop file and install SliTaz into it!

The problem is: what size? 200MB should be the minimum. Imagine, you could like it and install many more packages!

Loopfile creation

You can create the loop file with mountbox (click loop, enter the file name, then click create, enter the size, the units, click create) or with the command line:

# dd if=/dev/zero bs=1M count=200 of=slitaz.fs

You now need to create a filesystem in this loopfile:

# yes | mke2fs -j slitaz.fs

Later, if the loopfile is too small you can extend it (assuming you don't boot from the loopfile, but a Slitaz Live CD for example):

# dd if=/dev/zero bs=1M count=100 >> slitaz.fs
# resize2fs slitaz.fs

Root filesystem files installation

Copy files from the rootfs.gz archive of a cdrom into the loopfile:

# mount /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom
# mount -o loop,rw slitaz.fs /mnt
# unlzma -c /media/cdrom/boot/rootfs.gz | ( cd /mnt; cpio -idmu )
# umount -d /mnt
# umount /media/cdrom

Boot setup

Get a preinit iso file with same version (the kernel version must match the modules version in the root filesystem). The partition storing the loopfile (say /dev/hda1) and its path into the partition (say /data/slitaz.fs) is defined by the mount and loopfs arguments:

title SliTaz cooking
  map (hd0,0)/boot/slitaz-preinit.iso (hd1)
  map --hook
  kernel (hd1)/boot/bzImage mount=/dev/hda1 loopfs=data/slitaz.fs
  initrd (hd1)/boot/rootfs.gz

The loop install does not use exotic packages from preinit. You can use any SliTaz flavor (except lorams).

You can built an up-to-date preinit iso anytime with

# tazlito get-flavor preinit
# tazlito gen-distro

title SliTaz cooking in loop file
  map (hd0,0)/boot/slitaz-cooking.iso (hd1)
  map --hook
  kernel (hd1)/boot/bzImage mount=/dev/hda1 loopfs=data/slitaz.fs
  initrd (hd1)/boot/rootfs.gz
  
title SliTaz cooking in RAM (like the Live CD)
  map (hd0,0)/boot/slitaz-cooking.iso (hd1)
  map --hook
  kernel (hd1)/boot/bzImage rw root=/dev/null autologin
  initrd (hd1)/boot/rootfs.gz

Or, you can replace the device name of the mount variable by the UUID or LABEL returned by blkid:

title SliTaz cooking
  map (hd0,0)/boot/slitaz-preinit.iso (hd1)
  map --hook
  kernel (hd1)/boot/bzImage mount=a4b346ee-4c7b-46aa-9fd4-6bc39ab4fa96 loopfs=data/slitaz.fs
  initrd (hd1)/boot/rootfs.gz

You can extract the bzImage and rootfs.gz from the iso image to avoid map commands and defragmentation.

Subdirectory install in a Posix filesystem

If you want install SliTaz on a disk (not a frugal install), and you don't want to create a partition for SliTaz, but you have room in a filesystem for another Unix and you don't know how much space to reserve for SliTaz…

… create a subdirectory and install SliTaz into it!

Root filesystem files installation

Simply install SliTaz file in a subdirectory (say /var/slitaz) of another linux partition:

# mkdir /mnt/var/slitaz
# unlzma -c /media/cdrom/boot/rootfs.gz | ( cd /mnt/var/slitaz ; cpio -idmu )

Boot setup

Like a loop install, you need a preinit iso file with a matching version. The partition (say /dev/hda1) and the path into the partition are defined by the mount and subroot arguments:

title SliTaz cooking
  map (hd0,0)/boot/slitaz-preinit.iso (hd1)
  map --hook
  kernel (hd1)/boot/bzImage mount=/dev/hda1 subroot=var/slitaz
  initrd (hd1)/boot/rootfs.gz

Both notes in 'Loop install' section about bzImage extraction and UUID/LABEL also apply here.

The subdirectory install does not use exotic packages from preinit. You can use any SliTaz flavor (except lorams).

The subdirectory install can be easily tested with a Raspberry_Pi running Raspbian with the tazbian script. This script creates a raspbian package from the last SliTaz tarballs found on the mirror . The installation of this package

$ sudo dpkg -i slitaz-<VERSION>-1_armhf.deb

will install SliTaz in /var/os/slitaz and setup a multiboot. It does not remove rasbian or alter partitions.

Subdirectory install in a non-Posix filesystem

You want to install SliTaz in a subdirectory but the filesystem (NTFS or VFAT) does not fully support UNIX features.

Use posixovl !

Root filesystem files installation

You need to mount the target subdirectory (say /slitaz) with posixovl before installing the files.

# mkdir /mnt/slitaz
# mount.posixovl /mnt/slitaz
# unlzma -c /media/cdrom/boot/rootfs.gz | ( cd /mnt/slitaz ; cpio -idmu )

Boot setup

Like a loop install, you need a preinit iso file with a matching version. The partition (say /dev/hda1) and the path into the partition are defined by the mount, subroot and posixovl arguments:

title SliTaz cooking
  map --mem --heads=0 --sectors-per-track=0 (hd0,0)/boot/slitaz-preinit.iso (hd1)
  map --hook
  kernel (hd1)/boot/bzImage mount=/dev/hda1 subroot=slitaz posixovl
  initrd (hd1)/boot/rootfs.gz

Both notes in 'Loop install' section about bzImage extraction and UUID/LABEL also apply here.

TODO

Extra setup

You want to see the host partition while running SliTaz like UMSDOS does with /DOS.

Create the mount point:

# mkdir /mnt/slitaz/Windows

And update the boot arguments:

title SliTaz cooking
  map (hd0,0)/boot/slitaz-preinit.iso (hd1)
  map --hook
  kernel (hd1)/boot/bzImage mount=/dev/hda1 subroot=slitaz posixovl bindfs=.,slitaz/Windows
  initrd (hd1)/boot/rootfs.gz

TODO

LVM install

The Logical Volume Manager can manage (add disks, replace disks …) and logically freeze any disks for backup (snapshots) without disrupting service. See Logical_Volume_Manager_(Linux)

LVM partition setup

A small amount of storage (depending on the disk activity, likely between 1% and 15%) is used by snapshots to hold frozen data during a backup. Assuming we use the sda1 partition with 5% reserved for snapshots:

# tazpkg get-install lvm2
# modprobe dm-mod
# pvcreate /dev/sda1
# vgcreate slitaz /dev/sda1
# lvcreate -l 95%VG slitaz -n root 
# mke2fs -j /dev/mapper/slitaz-root        
# tune2fs -c 0 -i 0 /dev/mapper/slitaz-root
# mount /dev/mapper/slitaz-root /mnt

Root filesystem files installation

Similar to a loop install:

# unlzma -c /media/cdrom/boot/rootfs.gz | ( cd /mnt ; cpio -idmu )

Boot setup

Like a loop install, you need a preinit iso file with a matching version. The argument lvmroot holds the volume name:

title SliTaz cooking
  map (hd0,0)/boot/slitaz-preinit.iso (hd1)
  map --hook
  kernel (hd1)/boot/bzImage lvmroot=slitaz-root
  initrd (hd1)/boot/rootfs.gz

RAID install

Hardware RAID

Full hardware RAID is transparent for SliTaz. The disk array is seen as a single disk and nothing special has to be done to install SliTaz.

Semi hardware RAID

Creation & installation

The RAID array is built with the BIOS menus. SliTaz needs the driver dmraid to see the array and not only each hard disk:

# tazpkg get-install lvm2
# tazpkg get-install dmraid
# dmraid -s            <== shows raid infomation
# modprobe raid1       <== could be raid0, raid456 or raid10
# dmraid -ay           <== activates the array in /dev/mapper
# mount /etc/mapper/myraid /media
# unlzma -c /media/cdrom/boot/rootfs.gz | ( cd /mnt ; cpio -idmu )

Boot setup

Like a loop install, you need a preinit iso file with a matching version. The argument dmraid holds the volume name:

title SliTaz cooking
  map (hd0,0)/boot/slitaz-preinit.iso (hd1)
  map --hook
  kernel (hd1)/boot/bzImage dmraid=myraid
  initrd (hd1)/boot/rootfs.gz

Software RAID

The array does not need the BIOS and can be fully administered remotely!

You should tune the preinit flavor to your needs. Enable the dropbear startup in /etc/rcS.conf and maybe install a VPN. If the software RAID does not start on startup, you will be able to fix it remotely…

Creation & installation

Example for mirroring (raid1) devices /dev/sda3 and /dev/sdb3:

# tazpkg get-install lvm2
# tazpkg get-install mdadm
# echo y | mdadm --create /dev/md0 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sda3 /dev/sdb3 --bitmap=internal --assume-clean
# modprobe raid1
# mdadm --assemble --scan
# mount /dev/md0 /media
# unlzma -c /media/cdrom/boot/rootfs.gz | ( cd /mnt ; cpio -idmu )

Boot setup

Like a loop install, you need a preinit iso file with a matching version. The argument softraid holds the device name:

title SliTaz cooking
  map (hd0,0)/boot/slitaz-preinit.iso (hd1)
  map --hook
  kernel (hd1)/boot/bzImage softraid=/dev/md0
  initrd (hd1)/boot/rootfs.gz

Crypto install

Encrypts the whole root filesystem, not just the /home partition. Important, because the files in /tmp, /var/tmp may betray your work. The swap does too unless you use a file instead of a partition (like /tmp/swapfile; this will be encrypted too because this file is in the root filesystem)

LUKS

LUKS replaces the Cryptoloop and Loop-AES formats now.

Creation & installation

Create the encrypted device with mountbox (crypto button). You may have to accept the missing packages installation. Select the device (say /dev/sda3) and click the create button. Now you can start to format it:

# mke2fs -j /dev/mapper/crypto-sda3
# tune2fs -c 0 -i 0 /dev/mapper/crypto-sda3
# mount /dev/mapper/crypto-sda3 /media
# unlzma -c /media/cdrom/boot/rootfs.gz | ( cd /mnt ; cpio -idmu )

Boot setup

Like a loop install, you need a preinit iso file with a matching version. The argument cryptoroot holds the volume name:

title SliTaz cooking
  map (hd0,0)/boot/slitaz-preinit.iso (hd1)
  map --hook
  kernel (hd1)/boot/bzImage cryptoroot=sda3
  initrd (hd1)/boot/rootfs.gz

TODO

Loop-AES compatibility

This deprecated format needs the same boot setup as LUKS.

TODO

Mixed install

You can mix several above methods using one device access and/or one filesystem access.

Device accessFilesystem access
mount=subroot=
*raid=loopfs=
lvmroot=cryptoroot=
*raid= + lvmroot=loopfs= + cryptoroot=

Example 1 : RAID + LVM

Example 2 : Loop + crypto

Possible improvements?

Add network support: nbd/iscsi + RAID 1 net&local + crypto

TODO

PXE: No install !

You can setup a PXE server (well… you need to configure your server) or a PXE forwarder, see the Embedded Web Boot with PXE boot PROM (the SliTaz team has configured the server for you 8-))

 
en/guides/uncommoninst.txt · Last modified: 2014/12/07 13:38 by linea